Topic A: The Situation in Jammu and Kashmir
Topic B: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Directors: Fernanda Guimarães and Henrique Gomes
Assistant Directors: Caroline Braga, Renata Alvarenga and Renato Camilo
The demand for resolution of conflicts that pose threats to international peace and security is the main reason for the existence and operation of the United Nations Security Council. Throughout its history, the body in question has allowed multilateral deliberations on the major humanitarian crises of modernity, seeking legitimate means to achieve peace and stability among peoples.
The situation in Jammu and Kashmir is based on a matter of representativity, legitimacy and national identity. There is a strong ethnic and religious aspect on the matter, considering that the actual population living in Jammu and Kashmir practice the Islam and are minorities within the rest of India. Also, the social movement that claims for the independence of the region is observable, bringing the debate about self-determination and the respect for diversity.
India and Pakistan feature this conflict since the Indian independence from the British rule in 1947. The UNSC has made its interventions and produced several resolutions regarding the topic, however, recent events have lifted again the worries of the international community regarding the situation in Jammu and Kashmir. The worsening of internal disputes among separatist Kashmirian groups, the constant intervention of Pakistani armed forces and the creation of Al Qaeda cells in the territory pose possible threats to international peace and security.
The conflict in Jammu and Kashmir also raised the debate about nuclear weapons, considering that because of this dispute, India and Pakistan began to develop their nuclear arsenal since the 1980s, a fact that brought up the discussion about the proliferation of nuclear weapons back then. Nowadays, progress has been made in denuclearizing the military capacity of several nations, and also there was a growing collective effort on the part of the international community towards non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, illustrated by the success derived from the large number of adherents to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. However, the lack of satisfactory solutions to various regional conflicts, especially recent events regarding nuclear missile tests by North Korea towards Japan and its threats to United States, sparked a worldwide concern about the remnant of nuclear weapons and the possible damage that it would cause, bringing the matter once again to the UNSC agenda.